Features of Bayan-Olgii
Bayan-Olgii was established in 1940. It is one of the farthest provinces from the capital city, Ulaanbaatar (1750 km). Administratively, it is one of the largest provinces in Mongolia with a total of 13 soums, one village and a population of 108,530.
Bayan-Ulgii aimag borders with the territory 450 km west of the Altai Mountains along the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, 225 km north of the Silkhem Mountains to the Altai Republic of Russia, 165 km east of Uvs aimag, and 450 km east and south of Khovd aimag. Located at 1301-4374 meters above sea level, 95.3% of the territory is above 1600 meters. The highest point of the aimag is the highest point of Mongolia, Khuiten peak of Altai Tavan Bogd mountain (4374 m) and the lowest point is the center of Bayannuur soum (1301 m). It covers an area of 46,704.89 km2. The area is mostly mountainous, with few forests, and there are about 80 large and small lakes, more than 100 rivers, streams, and more than 200 springs and streams with fresh water, such as Dayan, Khoton, and Khurgan, which are fed by mountain glaciers. Tolbo and Achit lakes are rich in fishing resources. There are large rivers such as Khovd, Tsagaan, Sogoog, Yolt, Sagsai, Bulgan, Gants Mod and Bokhmurun, and the Khovd River is 506 km long.
The territory of the aimag is located in the middle latitude of the northern hemisphere, so it has a harsh continental climate. It has a cool climate due to its high altitude. In the highlands of the Altai Mountains, the average annual precipitation is 400-500 mm. In other words, it has a unique high mountain climate and fragile ecosystem that is heavily influenced by the Gobi and desert. The average annual wind speed reaches 4-9 m / sec.
There are more than 300 vertebrates, including 11 species of reptiles and 8 species of fish. Except for the world's endangered species, such as argali, ibex, snow leopard and lynx, there are animals like wolves, foxes, marmots, rabbits, arthropods, birds like blackbirds, sparrows, eagles, moons, woodpeckers, swans, pelicans, nightingale, geese and ducks.
Population of Bayan-Olgii and Kazakhs in Mongolia
The population of Bayan-Ulgii province is 108,530. 91% of the total population is Kazakh, and the rest is Uriankhai, Khalkh, Tuva, Durvud, and Myangad. It is believed that Mongolian Kazakhs inhabited the near the Western border of Mongolia along the Chinese-Mongolian border since the 1860s.
Mongolian Kazakhs have preserved their language and culture very well. About 70 percent of the population lives by traditional methods, such as herding. Kazakhs are very hardworking, hospitable and friendly people.
After the Mongolian National Liberation Revolution, on July 17, 1912, on behalf of 400 families, 11 Kazakhs, led by Khilan, signed a request letter to get Mongolian citizenship and gave it to Bogd Khan. Bogd Khaan accepted the request of the Kazakhs of Mongolia and issued a decree on November 23, 1912 to allow the Kazakhs to become citizens of Mongolia.
After the decree was issued, the Kazakhs were divided into three counties by territory and tribe and organized into administrative units. In 1940, by the initiative of the head of state Kh. Choibalsan, the first Kazakh province, the present Bayan-Ulgii province, was established.
Bayan-Ulgii province is home to the largest Kazakh tribes, including the Kerey, Naiman, and Uakh, representatives of the Merged, Hongirad, and Toroo are living happily there as well.
The Kazakh people have their own language and culture, and the Mongolian government has always supported and helped to preserve it. Article 1.1 of chapter 1 of the Constitution of Mongolia provides for the right of Mongolian citizens to receive education in their mother tongue, which gives Kazakhs the right to study and get education in their native language. There are 43 schools and 45 kindergartens in Bayan-Ulgii province, 95% of which teach in Kazakh. The fact that Mongolian-Kazakh bilingual education is taught only in high school is a great sign of the government's support for respecting ethnic minorities and protecting their heritage. They speak Kazakh, but according to Mongolian law they provide public services in Mongolian.